Chapter Nine: Demons of Deception

Trenches of Hell | Demons of Deception | Phantom Train of Doom
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Chapter Overview

Indiana Jones finds deception on the front lines and in the bedroom dominating this sophisticated thought-provoking film. Indy addresses the moral ambiguities of leadership when confronted with win-at-any-cost military officials who have callous disregard for the lives of the men they command. The gut-wrenching horror of trench warfare, vividly depicted in harrowing battle scenes, is contrasted when Indy goes on leave in Paris and engages in a torrid affair with infamous spy Mata Hari. She shows him that love, like war, can also be fraught with deception, disillusionment and heartbreak.

Key Topics:

Battle of Verdun, Mata Hari, and espionage.

Historic People:

Henri Philippe Petain—French general and later Premiere of France
Robert Nivelle—French General involved in Battle of Verdun
Charles Mangin—French commander at Verdun
Joseph Jacques Joffre—Commander-in-Chief of the French Army
Mata Hari—Dutch-born exotic dancer accused of being a double-agent

People and Topics


Battle of Verdun

Descriptor

The German assault on the French town of Verdun was one of the toughest and bloodiest battles of WWI. France's leaders, desperate to split the powerful German army, devised a new battle plan that would evolve into the more deadly Battle of the Somme.


Books

Martin, William. Verdun 1916: "They Shall Not Pass." Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2001.

Mason, David. Verdun. Gloucestershire:The Windrush Press, 2000.

Ousby, Ian. The Road to Verdun: World War I's Most Momentous Battle and the Folly of Nationalism. New York:Doubleday, 2002.


Websites

Battle of Verdun

BBC- Verdun

Verdun at the Time

Fort Douaumont Memorial

Philippe Petain Bio

German General Von Falkenhayn


Mata Hari

Descriptor

Dutch-born exotic dancer executed by the French for being a double-agent. Known for her close "connections" to high ranking officials on both sides of the war, it seemed possible that she was passing along important information. Mystery and conspiracy theories surround the story of Mata Hari to this day.


Books

Darrow, Margaret H. French Women and the First World War. New York: Berg, 2000.

Grayzel, Susan R. Women and the First World War. New York: Pearson Education Limited, 2002.


Websites

MataHari.nl

First World War - Who's Who- Mata Hari

International Spy Museum

MI5 Watched Mata Hari


Marshal Phillipe Pétain

Descriptor

Petain was a French general, commander, and hero of World War I. Serving in many capacities between wars, Petain's "fall from grace" began when he signed an armistice with Nazi Germany and gave up roughly three-fifths of France's territory in 1940. After the war Petain was sentenced to death for being a traitor, but his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment by Charles de Gaulle.


Books

Bruce, Robert B. Petain: Verdun to Vichy. Potomac Books, 2005.

Atkin, Nicholas. Profiles in Power: Petain. New York: Longman, 1998.


Websites

Philippe Petain Bio

BBC- Philippe Petain Bio

JewishVirtualLibrary- Vichy Regime

Jewish Deportation

The Vichy Regime


Espionage

Descriptor

Espionage is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the originating party's permission or knowledge. At the beginning of World War I, espionage was a crude and often misunderstood resource. As the war progressed espionage grew to become a decisive and crafty part of warfare helping lead to the armistice in November, 1918 (i.e. Britain's deciphering of the Zimmermann Telegram). By the onset of the Cold War, espionage had come into its own and paved the way for the classic image of fictional, but sometimes very real, spies like James Bond.


Books

Morton, James. Spies of the First World War: Under Cover for King and Kaiser. The National Archives, 2010.

Owen, David. Hidden Secrets: The Complete History of Espionage and the Technology Used to Support It. Firefly Books, 2002.

Bungert, Heike et al. Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century. Routledge, 2003.


Websites

International Spy Museum

The Zimmermann Telegram

Black Tom Explosion

MataHari.nl

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Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.

Documentary Previews

Below you will find information about each documentary that supplements Demons of Deception.


Into the Furnace: The Battle of Verdun


They called Verdun the Meat Grinder. The Furnace. Hell. When the fighting died down, almost a year after it began, French and German armies were back where they started -- minus close to one million men. The Battle of Verdun came to symbolize the senseless slaughter of the First World War, but for the French, who won the war at enormous cost, it left a deeper and more personal mark. The soul of France was ripped out in the muddy trenches of Verdun. Produced and Written by Sharon Wood.

Running Time: (0:28:45)

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Marshal Petain's Fall from Grace


In 1916, 60-year old General Henri Philippe Pétain, who'd been passed by for promotion most of his life, took charge of a horrific World War I battle that would mark France for generations. The Battle of Verdun, called the Meatgrinder, was the first in modern history where one army's goal was just to kill maximum numbers of the enemy. Amidst this death and destruction, Pétain came to life. Thirty years later, Pétain would go on trail, accused of treason at age 89. He had saved France once, on a First World War battlefield. But when his countrymen turned to him to save them again, as head of government during World War II, he failed spectacularly. Produced and Written by Sharon Wood.

Running Time: (0:30:41)

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Flirting with Danger: The Fantasy of Mata Hari


A palpable tension held its grip on Paris in 1917. It was the third disastrous year of World War I. France was losing badly -- and looking for someone to blame. In mid-February, word spread through the city that one of the most famous women in Europe had been arrested and accused of spying for Germany -- France's enemy in the war. Her name was Mata Hari. Produced and Written by Jennifer Petrucelli.

Running Time: (0:29:53)

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Reading the Enemy's Mind: Espionage in World War I


Over the course of the 20th century, the secretive government agencies and the spies who ran them would complete the transformation of espionage from an amateur activity to a full-time profession. Nations have come to rely on spies for protection from terrorists, other spies, and attacks by enemies. Secrecy keeps their activities out of sight until a rogue agent is caught using espionage for treasonous or greedy ends, or when their efforts to protect us fail. But as spy-tools grow more and more sophisticated, one thing is certain: espionage is here to stay. Produced and Written by Mark Page.

Running Time: (0:24:21)

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The above descriptors were acquired from Starwars.com

Disclaimer: All resources (including books and websites) provided on indyintheclassroom.com are intended to be used by educators. Indyintheclassroom.com is not responsible for the content on linked websites.
Educators are strongly advised to review any resources prior to allowing student use.

Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.

Indy Connections: Demons of Deception

Below are current event articles that relate to events, topics, and people found in Demons of Deception.


Secrets of Mata Hari to be revealed as MI5 files on wartime spies go online

express.co.uk
4/10/2014

The database will feature for the first time some of history’s most famous spies and the secrets in which they traded. Among the names detailed in more than 150 digitised dossiers is Dutch-born Hari, tried for causing the deaths of 50,000 soldiers by spying for German intelligence. She was arrested in February 1917 in Paris before being executed in France aged 41. The documents also include Edith Cavell, a British nurse who helped rescue Allied soldiers but was executed in war-torn Belgium. Others include Arthur Ransome, author of the children’s novel Swallows And Amazons and Sidney Reilly, a Russian-born adventurer whose exploits with the British Secret Service were the inspiration for James Bond.


First World War shell explodes at former Ypres battlefield killing two people

express.co.uk
3/19/2014

The shell exploded at a construction area in Ypres killing two workers and injuring two others. One person died instantly while the other died on the way to hospital and authorities said an investigation was taking place into the explosion. Ypres police chief Georges Aeck said: "It's a shell that exploded with four workers there, a conventional device from World War One. "One died instantly, another on the way to the hospital."


Help Transcribe Diaries From World War I

Smithsonian.com
3/18/2014

The National Archives currently has in its collection 1.5 million pages of handwritten diaries kept by soldiers of World War I. They're some of the most requested documents in the National Archives reading room, but until now have been accessible only to anyone who's made the trip to D.C. But now the archivisits are working to put them online, and you can help them. The project is called Operation War Diary, and it comes from a partnership between the National Archives, the citizen science initiative Zooniverse and the Imperial War Museum in the UK. The diaries have all been scanned and posted online for citizen historians to look at and transcribe. According to the project: "The war diaries contain a wealth of information of far greater interest than the army could ever have predicted. They provide unrivalled insight into daily events on the front line, and are full of fascinating detail about the decisions that were made and the activities that resulted from them."


WW1 German soldier recalls moment he bayoneted foe to death

telegraph.co.uk
3/7/2014

Stefan Westmann was a German medical student when called up for national service in April 1914. He served as a Corporal with the 29th later as a Medical Officer. When the Nazis came to power, he emigrated to Britain and ran a successful gynaecological practice on Harley Street. The German Army of the Kaiser consisted of 800,000 conscripts. There were hardly any professional soldiers. Amongst these 800,000 men they had ten thousand who were called One Year’s Volunteers. That means mostly students and men with higher certification of education


World War One: 10 interpretations of who started WW1

bbc.com
2/11/2014

No one nation deserves all responsibility for the outbreak of war, but Germany seems to me to deserve most. It alone had power to halt the descent to disaster at any time in July 1914 by withdrawing its "blank cheque" which offered support to Austria for its invasion of Serbia. I'm afraid I am unconvinced by the argument that Serbia was a rogue state which deserved its nemesis at Austria's hands. And I do not believe Russia wanted a European war in 1914 - its leaders knew that it would have been in a far stronger position to fight two years later, having completed its rearmament programme.


World War One: The circus animals that helped Britain

bbc.com
11/10/2013

On the cobbled streets of industrial Sheffield an Indian elephant dutifully lumbered along. Her task was important - she had to cart munitions, machines and scrap metal around the city, a job previously done by three horses taken off to war. Lizzie - as she was known - was used to performing tricks as part of a travelling menagerie. But with the outbreak of World War One she was conscripted to help with heavy labour, fitted with a harness and sent to work at a scrap metal merchants.


German Subs: Sunken WWI U-Boats a Bonanza for Historians

abcnew.com
6/21/2013

British archaeologists recently discovered more than 40 German U-boats sunk during World War I off the coast of England. Now they are in a race against time to learn the secrets hidden in their watery graves. On the old game show "What's My Line?" Briton Mark Dunkley might have been described with the following words: "He does what many adventurers around the world can only dream of doing." Dunkley is an underwater archeologist who dives for lost treasures. His most recent discoveries were anything if not eerie.


8 Famous People Who Missed the Lusitania

Smithsonian.com
5/2/2013

When the First World War began, in the summer of 1914, the Lusitania was among the most glamorous and celebrated ships in the world—at one time both the largest and fastest afloat. But the British passenger liner would earn a far more tragic place in history on May 7, 1915, when it was torpedoed by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland, with the loss of nearly 1,200 lives.


Rare World War I Images Found Inside Antique Camera By Photographer Anton Orlov

huffingtonpost.com
1/11/2013

A blogger passionate about historic photography techniques serendipitously found some old photos inside his newly-purchased camera. As in, World War I old. Last week, Anton Orlov of the Photo Palace blog was cleaning the Jumelle Belllieni stereoscopic camera that he'd bought at an antique store a few days prior, and found the images completely by accident. According to his blog, he opened the film chamber and saw the negatives on a stack of glass plates.


Disturbing Pathe footage from World War One reveals devastating effects of shell shock on soldiers as they were treated in pioneering Devon hospital

dailymail.co.uk
11/8/2012

Uncontrollable shaking, terrifying nightmares and severe convulsions were among the most devastating symptoms suffered by the many First World War soldiers who suffered shell shock. By the end of the war, more than 80,000 men who had endured the horrors of battle were struggling to return to normality. And here, disturbing footage compiled by British Pathé film archivists and released to MailOnline today, brings home the terrifying reality that for many the war never really ended. At the time, most shell shock victims were treated harshly and with little sympathy as their symptoms were not understood and they were seen as a sign of weakness. But at Newton Abbott's Seale Hayne in Devon, the approach was very different due to the revolutionary approach of a doctor called Arthur Hurst, an army major, who believed he could cure every shell shock victim.


Disclaimer: All resources (including books and websites) provided on indyintheclassroom.com are intended to be used by educators. Indyintheclassroom.com is not responsible for the content on linked websites.
Educators are strongly advised to review any resources prior to allowing student use.

Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.


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