Chapter Eight: Trenches of Hell

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Chapter Overview

Poison gas and prison camps bring home the true horror of war to Indiana Jones in this powerful, dramatic film. As a young soldier in the Belgian Army, Indy learns firsthand the savagery of warfare while participating in the Battle of the Somme. Almost succumbing to despair as his life becomes an endless round of artillery barrages, nerve gas attacks and decaying corpses, Indy fears that death will be his only way out. Then he is captured by the Germans and confined to a POW camp where he and fellow prisoner Charles de Gaulle hatch a daring scheme to win their freedom in true "Great Escape" style.

Key Topics:

Battle of the Somme and escape from Ingolstadt Prison

Historic People:

Siegfried Sassoon-- British poet and activist
Robert Graves-- British poet, novelist and critic
Charles DeGaulle-- French General, Statesmen and President of France

People and Topics


Battle of the Somme

Descriptor

Often remembered as one of the most tragic and pointless battles of WWI, the Battle of the Somme ended with over 1 million casualties and an allied territory gain of approximately seven miles. However, the tragedy of the battle and the great losses spark interest to this day.


Books

Brown, Malcolm. The Imperial War Museum Book of the Somme. London: Pan Books, 2002.

Laffin, John. The Western Front Illustrated: 1914-1918. Gloucestershire:Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001.

Sheffield, Gary. The Somme. London:Cassell, 2004.


Websites

Imperial War Museum | The Somme

The Battle of the Somme

BBC News | The Somme: Hell on Earth

FirstWorldWar.com | The Battle of the Somme

HSC | Battle of the Somme

Channel 4 | The Somme


Siegfried Sassoon

Descriptor

British poet and activist who served in WWI. Nicknamed "Mad Jack" by his comrades on the front for his "manic" and brave actions, Sassoon remains one of the quintessential war poets. After losing a close friend in the war, Sassoon turned his writing talents to anti-war prose and poetry. Sassoon's writings endure to this day and have timeless meaning for war veterans of any generation.


Books

Barker, Pat. Regeneration. New york: Penguin Group, 1993.

Sassoon, Siegfried. Collected Poems 1908-1956. London: Faber and Faber, 1947.


Websites

The War Poets Association

Siegfried Sassoon (1886-1967)

Siegfried Sassoon


Robert Graves

Descriptor

British poet, novelist, and critic who served in WWI. Perhaps best known for his World War I memoir Good-bye to All That and the historical novel I, Claudius, Graves is remembered as one of the best writers to emerge from WWI.


Books

Graves, Robert. Goodbye to All That. New York: Anchor Books, 1957.

Seymour, Miranda. Robert Graves: Life on the Edge. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1995.


Websites

Robert Graves Trust, Society, and Journal

The Robert Graves Archive

The War Poets Association


Charles de Gaulle

Descriptor

Remembered for his love and dedication to "his" France, the controversial and revered Charles de Gaulle began his well-known career as a French soldier during WWI. He later declared himself leader of Free France throughout the Nazi occupation of France in WWII. Following WWII, De Gaulle emerged as a hero and later became the President of France.


Books

Cook, Don. Charles De Gaulle: A Biography. New York: The Putnam Publishing Group, 1983.

Jackson, Julian. De Gaulle. London: Haus Publishing Limited, 2003.


Websites

Charles-de-Gaulle.org
Embassy of France USA- Charles de Gaulle
BBC.CO.UK De Gaulle Biography
Channel 4 History- De Gaulle
Time Magazine's 1958 Person of the Year

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Documentary Previews

Below you will find information about each documentary that supplements Trenches of Hell.


The Somme: Storm of Steel


Begun in July of 1916, the devastating Battle of the Somme was a turning point in warfare, demarking the modern combat arena in horrific carnage. Unseasoned and poorly trained British soldiers vastly overestimated the tenacity of German forces. Despite a solid week of bombardment where over a million artillery shells rained down upon German fortifications, they stood ready for the British advance. More British soldiers died on the first day of the Battle of the Somme than any other day in the history of British warfare. As the battle slogged on, troops effectively fought within an open graveyard, as there was no time to bury the multitude of the dead. As attrition wound down the 141-day conflict, almost 420,000 British soldiers lay dead, along with 200,000 French, and nearly half-a-million Germans, and all for a questionable purpose. Produced and Written by Adam Sternberg.

Running Time: (0:26:48)

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Siegfried Sassoon: A War Poet's Journey


He was a soldier's soldier, decorated for bravery by the British government and respected by the men in his battalion. But war had taken its toll on Siegfried Sassoon, and he felt a deep resentment against his country's military campaign. Sassoon returned from the trenches of hell in World War I to fight another battle in the halls of government back home. His resentment took the form of poetry: searing indictments that ran counter to popular opinion. This is the story of how one man's poetry and his protest against World War I shined a light of truth on the subject of war forever framed that conflict in the memory of his country. Produced and Written by David O'Dell.

Running Time: (0:30:09)

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Robert Graves and the White Goddess


Writer Robert Graves took many unpredictable turns on his fascinating journey through life. Though Graves would describe himself first and foremost as a poet, he was a man of enormous literary talent who wrote more than 150 books. He was eccentric, brilliant, and visionary and his vivid imagination was fueled by a volatile mixture of emotional highs and catastrophic lows. His most memorable works emerged when the world around him was falling apart. At the peak of his writing career, Graves attempted to unravel the mystery of his creative process. That effort took him on a journey across time and culture through which he envisioned a mythical female muse that he called the White Goddess. Produced and Written by David O'Dell and Betsy Bayha.

Running Time: (0:30:18)

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I Am France: The Myth of Charles de Gaulle


In France's darkest hours of World War II, a lone French voice emanated from BBC radio in an attempt to rally free French forces to resist the power of invading Germany. Recognizing his value as an ally, Winston Churchill acknowledged de Gaulle as the French leader despite the fact that a national government still existed in France. As he was forced to the sidelines of Allied Command decisions, de Gaulle led military campaigns defending France's colonies, building his reputation. Despite this, he was excluded from Normandy operations. He nonetheless accompanied US forces with great theatricality as they arrived in Paris, and was soon elected head of the French government. Years after his retirement, the French people turned to de Gaulle for guidance during the Algerian crisis, but his mythic position as the face of France would end during the social upheaval of the 1960s. Produced and Written by Karena O'Riordan.

Running Time: (0:30:08)

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The above descriptors were acquired from Starwars.com

Disclaimer: All resources (including books and websites) provided on indyintheclassroom.com are intended to be used by educators. Indyintheclassroom.com is not responsible for the content on linked websites.
Educators are strongly advised to review any resources prior to allowing student use.

Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.

Indy Connections: Trenches of Hell

Below are current event articles that relate to events, topics, and people found in Trenches of Hell.


A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: ‘We desire no conquest, no dominion. The world must be made safe for democracy’

independent.co.uk
6/5/2014

A light rain was falling on the evening of 2 April 1917 as Woodrow Wilson was driven from the White House to Capitol Hill, escorted by a unit of the United States cavalry, to address a specially convened joint session of Congress. According to contemporary accounts, the 28th president looked pale and nervous. But his words betrayed not the slightest doubt or hesitancy.


World War One: Tyne and Wear's shipbuilding prowess

bbc.com
6/4/2014

World War One is remembered as the first industrial war. A clash of furnace and factory as much as flesh and blood. The chimneys and cranes of this war machine consumed landscapes across Europe. And few were more dominated than the 12 miles of the River Tyne, from the North Sea to the west of Newcastle, devoted to building the world's ships. It is estimated more than three million tonnes of shipping were built in the yards here, on the nearby River Wear and in other north east yards, from 1914 to 1918.


For men used to mining - fighting in trenches was seen as an escape FROM HELL

express.co.uk
6/1/2014

These days, however, Big Pit digs tourism, not coal; the party descending into the earth are American visitors. There are no working deep-mines remaining in South Wales; already in decline, the area's coalfield was annihilated in the wake of the 1984-5 Miners' Strike, the names of the closed collieries to toll like funeral bells. Mardy. Tower. Deep Navigation. Markham. Lady Windsor. How black was my valley a century ago, on the eve of the Great War, when there were a dozen collieries within sight, and another 600 coal mines across South Wales, employing 232,000 men, who hewed 57 million tons a year, a fifth of the entire output of the United Kingdom. The very earth vibrated to the metronomic percussion of thousands of subterranean men wielding the pick. Coal for the Navy. Coal for industry. Coal for locomotives. Coal for homes.


We all know the classic First World War films - but what of flops and political embarrassments?

independent.co.uk
5/28/2014

Movie legends including Charlie Chaplin, Stanley Kubrick and Steven Spielberg have attempted to tackle the First World War, but while some have achieved Oscars and box-office success, others have delayed peace talks and enraged renowned world leaders. One of the most famous films, A Farewell to Arms (1932), directed by Frank Borzage, has been digitally restored and is due for re-release in UK cinemas tomorrow.


The ten men who shaped the road to war

independent.ie
5/10/2014

1 HORATIO KITCHENER As the first British troops marched whistling off to the front in autumn 1914 the cliche of the hour was: "It'll be all over by Christmas." An experienced campaigner on three continents, Horatio Kitchener from Ballylongford, Co Kerry, knew it would be a long haul. As Secretary of State for War he put together the largest volunteer army the world had ever seen, and put industrial production on an efficient war footing.


World War One author's life-saving helmet returns to Flanders

bbc.com
5/7/2014

A helmet which saved Eric Linklater's life during World War One has returned to the battlefields of Flanders. The Orkney writer had a miraculous escape in 1918 when the tin helmet was pierced by a German bullet. The helmet, which is now displayed in the Orkney Museum, has been loaned back to the Linklater family who took it to Belgium as part of commemorations by the Black Watch regiment. BBC Scotland's Fionn McArthur has been speaking to Eric's son, Magnus Linklater.


How Did the Cruellest Month Come to Be the Perfect 30 Days to Celebrate Poetry?

Smithsonian.com
4/4/2014

The “National Month” commemoration is a fairly harmless political boondoggle, involving a governmental proclamation and some degree of public programming by those concerned. Some of the “Months” are well-meaning attempts to rectify past wrongs, in particular February’s designation as “Black History Month” and November as “National Native American Heritage Month.” Other commemorative months are lesser known and the subjects are, shall we say, not especially compelling: January is “National Mentoring Month.” And we honor pets in May and honey in September.


First World War shell explodes at former Ypres battlefield killing two people

express.co.uk
3/19/2014

The shell exploded at a construction area in Ypres killing two workers and injuring two others. One person died instantly while the other died on the way to hospital and authorities said an investigation was taking place into the explosion. Ypres police chief Georges Aeck said: "It's a shell that exploded with four workers there, a conventional device from World War One. "One died instantly, another on the way to the hospital."


Help Transcribe Diaries From World War I

Smithsonian.com
3/18/2014

The National Archives currently has in its collection 1.5 million pages of handwritten diaries kept by soldiers of World War I. They're some of the most requested documents in the National Archives reading room, but until now have been accessible only to anyone who's made the trip to D.C. But now the archivisits are working to put them online, and you can help them. The project is called Operation War Diary, and it comes from a partnership between the National Archives, the citizen science initiative Zooniverse and the Imperial War Museum in the UK. The diaries have all been scanned and posted online for citizen historians to look at and transcribe. According to the project: "The war diaries contain a wealth of information of far greater interest than the army could ever have predicted. They provide unrivalled insight into daily events on the front line, and are full of fascinating detail about the decisions that were made and the activities that resulted from them."


WW1 German soldier recalls moment he bayoneted foe to death

telegraph.co.uk
3/7/2014

Stefan Westmann was a German medical student when called up for national service in April 1914. He served as a Corporal with the 29th later as a Medical Officer. When the Nazis came to power, he emigrated to Britain and ran a successful gynaecological practice on Harley Street. The German Army of the Kaiser consisted of 800,000 conscripts. There were hardly any professional soldiers. Amongst these 800,000 men they had ten thousand who were called One Year’s Volunteers. That means mostly students and men with higher certification of education


Disclaimer: All resources (including books and websites) provided on indyintheclassroom.com are intended to be used by educators. Indyintheclassroom.com is not responsible for the content on linked websites.
Educators are strongly advised to review any resources prior to allowing student use.

Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.


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