Chapter Nineteen: The Winds of Change

Treasure of the Peacock's Eye | Winds of Change | Mystery of the Blues
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Chapter Overview

Working as a translator, Indy assists the victors of World War I as they determine the fate of the world and the 20th Century at the Paris Peace Conference. Indy watches with old friend, T.E. Lawrence, as the Treaty of Versailles goes from being a peaceful reconciliation to a document of revenge and hate. Despite Arnold Toynbee's disappointment with the shortcomings of the new treaty and warning of imminent future war, the allied leaders force the Weimar Republic to accept total blame for World War I and sign the treaty. Disillusioned with the state of Europe, Indy returns to America where he faces new challenges with love, his father, and racism.

Key Topics:

Treaty of Versailles; Iraq & the Middle East; Rocketry; Racism

Historic People:

Woodrow Wilson—American President throughout World War I whose 14 Points failed to create "lasting peace" at the Paris Peace Conference.
Gertrude Bell—British writer, archaeologist, traveler, and political analyst who, with T.E. Lawrence, reshaped the Middle East.
Ho Chi Minh—Vietnamese revolutionary who defeated the French and formed a communist government (actions which led to the American Vietnam War).
Paul Robeson—American Civil Rights Activist, actor, and writer. Victim of America's Red Scare (late 1940's & 1950's).
Robert Goddard—The Father of Modern Rocketry whose pioneering liquid-fueled rockets paved the way for journeys to the "final frontier."

People and Topics


Woodrow Wilson

Descriptor

American President throughout World War I whose 14 Points failed to create "lasting peace" at the Paris Peace Conference.


Books

Brands, H.W. Woodrow Wilson. New York: Times Books, Henry Holt & Company, 2003.

Levin, Phyllis Lee. Edith and Woodrow: The Wilson White House. New York: A Lisa Drew Book Scribner, 2001.


Websites

White House- Wilson Bio

Wilson Center- Wilson Bio

Wilson Presidential Library

Wilson Pres. Library- For Teachers

UVA- President Resource- Wilson

League of Nations Photos


The Treaty of Versailles

Descriptor

The Treaty of Versailles was the peace agreement drafted by the allied powers at the conclusion of WWI. Allied leaders hoped to draft a peace that would end war forever, however, the hatred and punishment that resulted from the treaty failed to create a "lasting peace." In fact, the treaty paved the very road that led to the rise of Fascism, Adolf Hitler, and ultimately World War II.


Books

Sharp, Alan. The Versailles Settlement: Peacemaking in Paris, 1919. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.

MacMillan, Margaret. Paris, 1919: Six Months That Changed the World. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2003.


Websites

The Armistice

Paris Peace Conference

BBC- Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles Document

BBC- Versailles Outcomes 1

BBC- Versailles Outcomes 2


Gertrude Bell

Descriptor

British writer, archaeologist, traveler, and political analyst who, with T.E. Lawrence, reshaped the Middle East.


Books

Lukitz, Liora. A Quest in the Middle East: Gertrude Bell and the Making of Modern Iraq. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Winstone, H.V.F. Gertrude Bell. London: Barzan, 2004.


Websites

Gertrude Bell & Iraq

BBC- Iraq's British "Queen"

Gertrude Bell Project

Gertrude Bell Papers

Baghdad Museum


Ho Chi Minh

Descriptor

Vietnamese revolutionary who defeated the French Colonials and formed a communist government (actions which led to the American Vietnam War).


Books

Duiker, William J. Ho Chi Minh: A Life. New york: Hyperion, 2000.

Quinn-Judge, Sophie. Ho Chi Minh: The Missing Years. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.


Websites

Time 100- Ho Chi Minh

BBC- Minh Bio

CNN- Minh Bio

BBC- Vietnam Timeline

Vietnam Center & Archive


Paul Robeson

Descriptor

American Civil Rights Activist, actor, and writer. Victim of America's Red Scare (late 1940's & 1950's).


Books

Boyle, Sheila Tully, Andrew Bunie. Paul Robeson: The Years of Promise and Achievement. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.

Robeson, Paul Jr. The Undiscovered Paul Robeson: An Artist's Journey, 1898-1939. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.


Websites

Princeton- Paul Robeson Collection

PBS- Robeson Bio & Timeline

Rutgers- Robeson Bio

Afrocentric Voices- Robeson Bio

Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture


Robert Goddard

Descriptor

The "Father of Modern Rocketry" whose pioneering liquid-fueled rockets paved the way for journeys to the "final frontier."


Books

Clary, David A. Rocket Man: Robert H. Goddard and the Birth of the Space Age. New York: Hyperion, 2003.

Launius, Roger D., Howard E. McCurdy. Imagining Space. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2001.


Websites

Time 100- Robert Goddard

NASA- Goddard Bio

Clark Univ.- Goddard Archives & Papers

Discovery.com- Build Your Own Rocket

Discovery.com- NASA in Your Home?

NASA

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Educators are strongly advised to review any resources prior to allowing student use.

Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.

Documentary Previews

Below you will find information about each documentary that supplements The Winds of Change.


The Best Intentions: The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles


In May 1919, six months after the end of the Great War in Europe, a French train departed from Berlin, carrying the German delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. The victors decided to meet in Paris to begin the daunting task of rebuilding the world and making a lasting peace settlement with Germany. In a clash of personalities and agendas, facing unimaginable circumstances, the world's leaders met for six months to try to deliver that promise. But just a few years later, their plan for peace would unravel, catapulting the world toward the very tragedy they had wanted to prevent... Was it their fault? Or was it inevitable? Produced and Written by Greg Sirota.

Running Time: (0:33:15)

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Woodrow Wilson: American Idealist


In 1913, 56 year old Woodrow Wilson was inaugurated President of the United States. He came to the job with little practical experience. Still, he arrived in Washington confident, determined to change America. Just over a year after he assumed office, World War I swept across Europe, and Wilson became committed to not just changing the United States, but to changing the world. Although Wilson didn't live long enough to see his dream of lasting international cooperation become reality, decades after his death, in the somber aftermath of World War II, his ideals once again took center stage. Produced and Written by Adam Sternberg.

Running Time: (0:28:41)

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Gertrude Bell: Iraq's Uncrowned Queen


On March 20, 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. Saddam Hussein, the dictator who'd controlled this nation for nearly 25 years was deposed. Many Iraqis celebrated this turning point. However, before long the troops the Iraqis had greeted as liberators were viewed as occupiers. This wasn't the first time these scenes had played out on the streets of Baghdad. In the aftermath of World War I, the British faced nearly the same situation when they took control. One of those challenged was a fiercely independent archaeologist, map-maker and intelligence officer who'd come to know the region as few westerners had. Her name was Gertrude Bell. Produced and Written by Adam Sternberg.

Running Time: (0:33:07)

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Ho Chi Minh: The Price of Freedom


In the summer of 1966, the United States found itself in a war it couldn't win, against an enemy it didn't understand. For the Americans, it was a war against Communism. But for the Vietnamese, it was a war to break free from centuries of foreign oppression. At this pivotal moment in their history, they were led by one man who would stop at nothing to free his people. They called him Uncle Ho. To the rest of the world, he was Ho Chi Minh. Millions of Vietnamese would pay the price for Ho Chi Minh's vision of a free Vietnam. A vision that was as bold as it was unbreakable. Produced by Karena O'Riordan. Written by Karena O'Riordan and Mike Welt.

Running Time: (0:31:01)

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Paul Robeson: Scandalize My Name


Paul Robeson was great at everything he did. And he did a lot: an acclaimed singer, actor, all-American football player, Ivy-league educated lawyer, prize-winning orator. Robeson spoke over a dozen languages in a bass-baritone voice that moved people. But when Robeson used that voice to disagree with the political establishment, people turned on him. Produced and Written by Karena O'Riordan.

Running Time: (0:32:31)


Robert Goddard: Mr. Rocket Science


Since our ancestors first stood on two legs, we've looked up at the universe with wonder. And we've been lighting up the night sky since the Chinese first invented rockets some 2670 years ago. In the early 1900s, American inventor Robert Goddard brought space and rockets together -- and launched a new era in human history. Produced and Written by Sharon Wood.

Running Time: (0:31:34)

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Acknowledgement: Indyintheclassroom.com would like to thank David Schneider of Lucasfilm, Ltd. & JAK Films Inc. for allowing use of the documentary preview featured above.

Copyright: The preview featured above is the property of LucasFilm, Ltd. & JAK Films Inc. and may not be copied, downloaded, reproduced, or distributed without permission from the copyright holder.

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COURTESY OF LUCASFILM LTD.

Indy Connections: The Winds of Change

Below are current event articles that relate to events, topics, and people found in The Winds of Change.


What New Zealanders left behind in Arras, France

ww100.govt.nz
9/22/2014

Between 1916 and 1917, the New Zealand Tunnelling Company linked a subterranean system of quarries beneath the Western Front, and named them after New Zealand places to help themselves stay oriented underground.
Originally mined for chalk to build the French town of Arras, the vast network of 200 year-old underground quarries was rediscovered in September 1916. The New Zealand tunnellers were tasked with linking and extending these old quarries in preparation for a major Allied attack on the Germans. Once complete, the quarried spaces would secretly house Allied troops before they took on the enemy in the ‘Battle of Arras’.


Trench Warfare in World War I Was a Smarter Strategy Than You Realize

io9.com
9/22/2014

History remembers trench warfare as wasteful, futile, and uninspired, but in reality it was a deeply thought-out system that underwent constant revision. Here's how it worked during World War I.
Top image: A painting by Captain Kenneth Keith Forbes shows a Canadian 6-inch howitzer supporting British troops in the attack on Thiepval on 16 July 1916 during the Somme offensive. Via Canadian Artillery in Action.
It was around this time 100 years ago that the mobile battlefield along the Western Front ground to a screeching halt — a 440 mile stretch that barely moved in the ensuing four years.


First World War: how Telegraph readers saw it

telegraph.co.uk
9/2/2014

Everyone knows about the horrors of life in the trenches of the First World War, but it’s only recently that the anxieties of people back home in Britain have started to be talked about.
At long last, those feelings are being aired more widely, thanks to a new anthology of letters written, at the time, to The Daily Telegraph. The message these missives impart is of a nation that was desperate to provide support, of any kind, to our brave boys fighting on just the other side of the Channel.


First World War centenary: how the events of August 2 1914 unfolded

telegraph.co.uk
8/2/2014

Britain went to war on August 4 1914. In the second part of a four-day series, we document the dramatic events leading up to the declaration of war as they happened, hour-by-hour.


A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: ‘We desire no conquest, no dominion. The world must be made safe for democracy’

independent.co.uk
6/5/2014

A light rain was falling on the evening of 2 April 1917 as Woodrow Wilson was driven from the White House to Capitol Hill, escorted by a unit of the United States cavalry, to address a specially convened joint session of Congress. According to contemporary accounts, the 28th president looked pale and nervous. But his words betrayed not the slightest doubt or hesitancy.


World War One: Tyne and Wear's shipbuilding prowess

bbc.com
6/4/2014

World War One is remembered as the first industrial war. A clash of furnace and factory as much as flesh and blood. The chimneys and cranes of this war machine consumed landscapes across Europe. And few were more dominated than the 12 miles of the River Tyne, from the North Sea to the west of Newcastle, devoted to building the world's ships. It is estimated more than three million tonnes of shipping were built in the yards here, on the nearby River Wear and in other north east yards, from 1914 to 1918.


For men used to mining - fighting in trenches was seen as an escape FROM HELL

express.co.uk
6/1/2014

These days, however, Big Pit digs tourism, not coal; the party descending into the earth are American visitors. There are no working deep-mines remaining in South Wales; already in decline, the area's coalfield was annihilated in the wake of the 1984-5 Miners' Strike, the names of the closed collieries to toll like funeral bells. Mardy. Tower. Deep Navigation. Markham. Lady Windsor. How black was my valley a century ago, on the eve of the Great War, when there were a dozen collieries within sight, and another 600 coal mines across South Wales, employing 232,000 men, who hewed 57 million tons a year, a fifth of the entire output of the United Kingdom. The very earth vibrated to the metronomic percussion of thousands of subterranean men wielding the pick. Coal for the Navy. Coal for industry. Coal for locomotives. Coal for homes.


We all know the classic First World War films - but what of flops and political embarrassments?

independent.co.uk
5/28/2014

Movie legends including Charlie Chaplin, Stanley Kubrick and Steven Spielberg have attempted to tackle the First World War, but while some have achieved Oscars and box-office success, others have delayed peace talks and enraged renowned world leaders. One of the most famous films, A Farewell to Arms (1932), directed by Frank Borzage, has been digitally restored and is due for re-release in UK cinemas tomorrow.


The ten men who shaped the road to war

independent.ie
5/10/2014

1 HORATIO KITCHENER As the first British troops marched whistling off to the front in autumn 1914 the cliche of the hour was: "It'll be all over by Christmas." An experienced campaigner on three continents, Horatio Kitchener from Ballylongford, Co Kerry, knew it would be a long haul. As Secretary of State for War he put together the largest volunteer army the world had ever seen, and put industrial production on an efficient war footing.


Help Transcribe Diaries From World War I

Smithsonian.com
3/18/2014

The National Archives currently has in its collection 1.5 million pages of handwritten diaries kept by soldiers of World War I. They're some of the most requested documents in the National Archives reading room, but until now have been accessible only to anyone who's made the trip to D.C. But now the archivisits are working to put them online, and you can help them. The project is called Operation War Diary, and it comes from a partnership between the National Archives, the citizen science initiative Zooniverse and the Imperial War Museum in the UK. The diaries have all been scanned and posted online for citizen historians to look at and transcribe. According to the project: "The war diaries contain a wealth of information of far greater interest than the army could ever have predicted. They provide unrivalled insight into daily events on the front line, and are full of fascinating detail about the decisions that were made and the activities that resulted from them."


Disclaimer: All resources (including books and websites) provided on indyintheclassroom.com are intended to be used by educators. Indyintheclassroom.com is not responsible for the content on linked websites.
Educators are strongly advised to review any resources prior to allowing student use.

Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.


Treasure of the Peacock's Eye | Winds of Change | Mystery of the Blues
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