Chapter Twelve: Attack of the Hawkmen

Oganga | Attack of the Hawkmen | Adventures in the Secret Service
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Chapter Overview

Indy takes to the skies in this highflying thriller. The French Secret Service dispatches Indy to the Lafayette Escadrille to aid the allies in aerial reconnaissance of the German lines. Danger lurks as Indy faces off with the legendary ace of aces Manfred von Richthofen, known more commonly as the Red Baron. Indy’s secret mission then takes him behind enemy lines to lure aircraft designer, Anthony Fokker, into defection to the allies. This dangerous mission becomes all the more important when Indy discovers a powerful secret weapon that Fokker has designed for the Germans.

Key Topics:

War in the third dimension; Lafayette Escadrille; Espionage

Historic People:

Manfred von Richthofen-- German fighter pilot who became the top Ace of World War I (80 kills). Earned nickname, The Red Baron.
Anthony Fokker-- Dutch born aircraft engineer who designed some of the best known planes of WWI. Employed by Germany (Central Powers).
Charles Nungesser-- Flamboyant and sometimes reckless French Ace pilot who fought in WWI. Died in 1927 attempting to be the first to make the transatlantic flight (Paris to New York).

People and Topics


War in the Third Dimension

Descriptor

World War I was the first war to feature aerial combat. Planes, zeppelins, and strategic bombing were all used for the first time.


Books

Morrow, John H. Jr. The Great War in the Air. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.

Frandsen, Bert. Hat in the Ring. Washington and London: Smithsonian Books, 2003.


Websites

Air Power: WWI Aerial Combat

The Aerodrome: Aces and Aircraft of WWI

League of World War I Aviation Historians

US Centennial of Flight

Airpower Doctrine | WWI


Lafayette Escadrille

Descriptor

A French air squadron of mostly American volunteer pilots who sought adventure in the Great War long before their country did.


Books

Gordon, Dennis. The Lafayette Flying Corps: The American Volunteers in the French Air Service in the World War One. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing Ltd., 2000.

Parsons, E.C. The Great Adventure: The Story of the Lafayette Escadrille. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc, 1937.


Websites

Lafayette Escadrille

Lafayette Flying Corps.

Air Power: US Participation in WWI

National Air & Space Museum


Manfred von Richthofen

Descriptor

Originally a cavalry officer, Baron von Richthofen grew bored with the fighting on the Western Front and began looking to the skies. It's surprising to learn that the "Red Baron," as he became known, had to take flying lessons just like any other pilot. However, his natural ability and ambition drove him to become the top ace of World War I (80 kills). A legend in his own time, the "Red Baron" remains to this day the quintessential fighter pilot.


Books

Von Richthofen, Manfred. Der Rote Kampfflieger, or the Red Battle Flier.

Franks, Giblin and McCrery. Under the Guns of the Red Baron: The Complete Record of von Richthofen's Victories and Victims Fully Illustrated.


Websites

The Aerodrome: Aces and Aircraft of WWI

AcePilots.com | Richthofen

The Red Fighter Pilot

PBS: Who Killed the Red Baron?


Anthony Fokker

Descriptor

Dutch born aircraft engineer who designed some of the best known planes of WWI, including the Red Baron's infamous Fokker Dr.I triplane. He is also known for developing the synchronization gear that allowed pilots to fire straight ahead through their propellor. Fokker was "employed" by Germany (Central Powers) throughout the war. After WWI, he turned to making civilian aircraft.


Books

Dierikx, Marc. Fokker: A Transatlantic Biography. US: The Smithsonian Institution, 1997.

Postma, Thijs. Fokker: Aircraft Builders to the World. New York: Jane's Incorporated, 1980.


Websites

Fokker and His Aircraft

League of World War I Aviation Historians

Dutch Aviation


Charles Nungesser

Descriptor

Flamboyant and sometimes reckless French Ace pilot who fought in WWI. Died in 1927 attempting to be the first to make the transatlantic flight (Paris to New York).


Books

Franks, Norman, Frank W. Bailey. Over the Front: A Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the U.S. and French Air Services 1914-1918. Grub Street, London, 1922.


Websites

Nungesser Bio

Acepilots.com/nungesser

Aerodrome/nungesser

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Educators are strongly advised to review any resources prior to allowing student use.

Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.

Documentary Previews

Below you will find information about each documentary that supplements Attack of the Hawkmen.


War in the Third Dimension: Aerial Warfare in World War I


When World War I began, the rival armies charged into battle with frightening new weapons that seemed ready to change the very nature of war. One promising new piece of military hardware -- the airplane -- wasn't quite ready to hit its mark. That didn't stop a few passionate advocates from making big plans for airplanes, or from dreaming up ways to use them in war. By the end of the war these visionaries would transform the flimsy airplanes of 1914 into powerful and dependable weapons, and take war where it had rarely gone before: beyond the two dimensional realm of our planet's surface, into the third dimension of the air above. Produced by Mark Page and Jennifer Petrucelli. Written by Mark Page.

Running Time: (0:27:34)


Blood Red: The Life and Death of Manfred von Richthofen


Today, historians and aviation buffs still celebrate the Red Baron as the ideal fighter pilot. A daring knight of the sky who helped write the book on aerial combat during the world's first air war. For the man behind the myth, however, the real story is a tale of disillusionment; a blood red saga in which ancient ideals of chivalry, honor and duty came crashing down in the fires of modern war. Produced and written by Mark Page and Jennifer Petrucell. Written by Mark Page.

Running Time: (0:27:43)

Exclusive Documentary Preview!
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Flying High for France: The Lafayette Escadrille


In a war that claimed millions of lives, most who served in the military fought because they had no choice. But the high flying men of the Lafayette Escadrille were different: they didn't have to be there. They were American adventurers who volunteered for World War One long before their country joined. They were lawyers, authors, heirs to banking and railroad fortunes, Ivy League graduates, friends of royalty, sons of privilege. All they wanted was a chance to fly. The young pilots came to the war with romantic ideas of adventure and heroism. They had no idea what they were in for. Produced and written by Karena O'Riordan.

Running Time: (0:26:13)


Anthony Fokker: The Flying Dutchman


On November 11, 1918, the Germans laid down their arms, finally ending World War I. In the surrender agreement, the Allies listed the numbers of cannons, machine guns and other weapons that Germany had to turn over. Yet of 1,700 airplanes demanded, only one type was so feared that it was mentioned by name: the D-7. The deadly machine was the masterwork of a 28 year-old Dutchman who had become Germany's most skilled -- and unconventional -- plane maker: Anthony Fokker. Produced and written by Mike Welt.

Running Time: (0:27:31)

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The above descriptors were acquired from Starwars.com

Disclaimer: All resources (including books and websites) provided on indyintheclassroom.com are intended to be used by educators. Indyintheclassroom.com is not responsible for the content on linked websites.
Educators are strongly advised to review any resources prior to allowing student use.

Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.

Indy Connections: Attack of the Hawkmen

Below are current event articles that relate to events, topics, and people found in Attack of the Hawkmen.


Help Transcribe Diaries From World War I

Smithsonian.com
3/18/2014

The National Archives currently has in its collection 1.5 million pages of handwritten diaries kept by soldiers of World War I. They're some of the most requested documents in the National Archives reading room, but until now have been accessible only to anyone who's made the trip to D.C. But now the archivisits are working to put them online, and you can help them. The project is called Operation War Diary, and it comes from a partnership between the National Archives, the citizen science initiative Zooniverse and the Imperial War Museum in the UK. The diaries have all been scanned and posted online for citizen historians to look at and transcribe. According to the project: "The war diaries contain a wealth of information of far greater interest than the army could ever have predicted. They provide unrivalled insight into daily events on the front line, and are full of fascinating detail about the decisions that were made and the activities that resulted from them."


World War One: 10 interpretations of who started WW1

bbc.com
2/11/2014

No one nation deserves all responsibility for the outbreak of war, but Germany seems to me to deserve most. It alone had power to halt the descent to disaster at any time in July 1914 by withdrawing its "blank cheque" which offered support to Austria for its invasion of Serbia. I'm afraid I am unconvinced by the argument that Serbia was a rogue state which deserved its nemesis at Austria's hands. And I do not believe Russia wanted a European war in 1914 - its leaders knew that it would have been in a far stronger position to fight two years later, having completed its rearmament programme.


The Spirit of St. Louis’ Amazing Journey

Smithsonian.com
11/15/2013

To fly between New York and Paris, in either direction, in a single flight. Lindbergh was not the first to take the dare. Dozens had flown the Atlantic in stages, as early as 1919; and several had lost their lives in pursuit of the prize. By the spring of 1927, while others were outfitting $100,000 tri-motor planes with deluxe interiors, Lindbergh determined that the key to success would be simplicity: a single-engine monoplane with only one pilot. He found eight civic-minded businessmen in St. Louis to back his endeavor.


World War One: The circus animals that helped Britain

bbc.com
11/10/2013

On the cobbled streets of industrial Sheffield an Indian elephant dutifully lumbered along. Her task was important - she had to cart munitions, machines and scrap metal around the city, a job previously done by three horses taken off to war. Lizzie - as she was known - was used to performing tricks as part of a travelling menagerie. But with the outbreak of World War One she was conscripted to help with heavy labour, fitted with a harness and sent to work at a scrap metal merchants.


German Subs: Sunken WWI U-Boats a Bonanza for Historians

abcnew.com
6/21/2013

British archaeologists recently discovered more than 40 German U-boats sunk during World War I off the coast of England. Now they are in a race against time to learn the secrets hidden in their watery graves. On the old game show "What's My Line?" Briton Mark Dunkley might have been described with the following words: "He does what many adventurers around the world can only dream of doing." Dunkley is an underwater archeologist who dives for lost treasures. His most recent discoveries were anything if not eerie.


8 Famous People Who Missed the Lusitania

Smithsonian.com
5/2/2013

When the First World War began, in the summer of 1914, the Lusitania was among the most glamorous and celebrated ships in the world—at one time both the largest and fastest afloat. But the British passenger liner would earn a far more tragic place in history on May 7, 1915, when it was torpedoed by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland, with the loss of nearly 1,200 lives.


How the DC-3 Revolutionized Air Travel

Smithsonian.com
4/1/2013

On an early evening in late 1938, a gleaming American Airlines DC-3 departed Newark Airport, bound for Glendale, California. The takeoff, wrote a Fortune magazine reporter aboard to record the still-novel experience of cross-country air travel, was effortless. “Halfway along the runway,” he recounted, “she left the ground so smoothly that none of the first fliers in the cabin realized what had happened until they saw the whole field rushing away behind them and the factory lights winking through the Jersey murk ahead.” By the time the flight crossed over Virginia, passengers had already polished off a dinner of soup, lamb chops, vegetables, salad, ice cream and coffee. After a refueling stop in Nashville, the DC-3 continued west. Beyond Dallas, the journalist added, “visibility was limited only by the far horizons of the curving earth.” Despite head winds, the plane arrived on schedule at 8:50 a.m. Total time was 18 hours 40 minutes, including several ground stops.


A History of the Parachute’s Earliest Days

Smithsonian.com
3/7/2013

I recently went skydiving for the first time. It was possibly the most exhilarating thing I’ve ever done in my life. A couple days later, once I had time to process everything, my thoughts turned to that backpack that kept me alive. When was it designed? Who was the inventor that made it possible for me to survive a fall of 10,000 feet? Some quick research told that that I owed my life to a Russian actor named Gleb Kotelnikov, who is credited with inventing the first backpack parachute in 1911. Surprisingly little is written about Kotelnikov –at least in English– but assuming Google translate can be trusted, he was compelled to create the parachute after witnessing the death of pilot Leo Matsievich during an air show in St. Petersburg. From that horrible moment, Kotelnikov, a former theater actor, dedicated the rest of his life to preventing the unnecessary deaths of airplane pilots. By the early 20th century, basic parachutes were already widely used to perform jumps from hot-air balloons, and of course the idea of the parachute famously goes back all the way to Leonardo da Vinci, but these early parachutes were elaborate and cumbersome, and the high speed at which planes traveled required a more efficient design.


Rare World War I Images Found Inside Antique Camera By Photographer Anton Orlov

huffingtonpost.com
1/11/2013

A blogger passionate about historic photography techniques serendipitously found some old photos inside his newly-purchased camera. As in, World War I old. Last week, Anton Orlov of the Photo Palace blog was cleaning the Jumelle Belllieni stereoscopic camera that he'd bought at an antique store a few days prior, and found the images completely by accident. According to his blog, he opened the film chamber and saw the negatives on a stack of glass plates.


Disturbing Pathe footage from World War One reveals devastating effects of shell shock on soldiers as they were treated in pioneering Devon hospital

dailymail.co.uk
11/8/2012

Uncontrollable shaking, terrifying nightmares and severe convulsions were among the most devastating symptoms suffered by the many First World War soldiers who suffered shell shock. By the end of the war, more than 80,000 men who had endured the horrors of battle were struggling to return to normality. And here, disturbing footage compiled by British Pathé film archivists and released to MailOnline today, brings home the terrifying reality that for many the war never really ended. At the time, most shell shock victims were treated harshly and with little sympathy as their symptoms were not understood and they were seen as a sign of weakness. But at Newton Abbott's Seale Hayne in Devon, the approach was very different due to the revolutionary approach of a doctor called Arthur Hurst, an army major, who believed he could cure every shell shock victim.


Disclaimer: All resources (including books and websites) provided on indyintheclassroom.com are intended to be used by educators. Indyintheclassroom.com is not responsible for the content on linked websites.
Educators are strongly advised to review any resources prior to allowing student use.

Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.

Suggested Lessons


Oganga | Attack of the Hawkmen | Adventures in the Secret Service
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