Chapter Eight: Trenches of Hell

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Chapter Overview

Poison gas and prison camps bring home the true horror of war to Indiana Jones in this powerful, dramatic film. As a young soldier in the Belgian Army, Indy learns firsthand the savagery of warfare while participating in the Battle of the Somme. Almost succumbing to despair as his life becomes an endless round of artillery barrages, nerve gas attacks and decaying corpses, Indy fears that death will be his only way out. Then he is captured by the Germans and confined to a POW camp where he and fellow prisoner Charles de Gaulle hatch a daring scheme to win their freedom in true "Great Escape" style.

Key Topics:

Battle of the Somme and escape from Ingolstadt Prison

Historic People:

Siegfried Sassoon-- British poet and activist
Robert Graves-- British poet, novelist and critic
Charles DeGaulle-- French General, Statesmen and President of France

People and Topics


Battle of the Somme

Descriptor

Often remembered as one of the most tragic and pointless battles of WWI, the Battle of the Somme ended with over 1 million casualties and an allied territory gain of approximately seven miles. However, the tragedy of the battle and the great losses spark interest to this day.


Books

Brown, Malcolm. The Imperial War Museum Book of the Somme. London: Pan Books, 2002.

Laffin, John. The Western Front Illustrated: 1914-1918. Gloucestershire:Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2001.

Sheffield, Gary. The Somme. London:Cassell, 2004.


Websites

Imperial War Museum | The Somme

The Battle of the Somme

BBC News | The Somme: Hell on Earth

FirstWorldWar.com | The Battle of the Somme

HSC | Battle of the Somme

Channel 4 | The Somme


Siegfried Sassoon

Descriptor

British poet and activist who served in WWI. Nicknamed "Mad Jack" by his comrades on the front for his "manic" and brave actions, Sassoon remains one of the quintessential war poets. After losing a close friend in the war, Sassoon turned his writing talents to anti-war prose and poetry. Sassoon's writings endure to this day and have timeless meaning for war veterans of any generation.


Books

Barker, Pat. Regeneration. New york: Penguin Group, 1993.

Sassoon, Siegfried. Collected Poems 1908-1956. London: Faber and Faber, 1947.


Websites

The War Poets Association

Siegfried Sassoon (1886-1967)

Siegfried Sassoon


Robert Graves

Descriptor

British poet, novelist, and critic who served in WWI. Perhaps best known for his World War I memoir Good-bye to All That and the historical novel I, Claudius, Graves is remembered as one of the best writers to emerge from WWI.


Books

Graves, Robert. Goodbye to All That. New York: Anchor Books, 1957.

Seymour, Miranda. Robert Graves: Life on the Edge. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1995.


Websites

Robert Graves Trust, Society, and Journal

The Robert Graves Archive

The War Poets Association


Charles de Gaulle

Descriptor

Remembered for his love and dedication to "his" France, the controversial and revered Charles de Gaulle began his well-known career as a French soldier during WWI. He later declared himself leader of Free France throughout the Nazi occupation of France in WWII. Following WWII, De Gaulle emerged as a hero and later became the President of France.


Books

Cook, Don. Charles De Gaulle: A Biography. New York: The Putnam Publishing Group, 1983.

Jackson, Julian. De Gaulle. London: Haus Publishing Limited, 2003.


Websites

Charles-de-Gaulle.org
Embassy of France USA- Charles de Gaulle
BBC.CO.UK De Gaulle Biography
Channel 4 History- De Gaulle
Time Magazine's 1958 Person of the Year

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Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.

Documentary Previews

Below you will find information about each documentary that supplements Trenches of Hell.


The Somme: Storm of Steel


Begun in July of 1916, the devastating Battle of the Somme was a turning point in warfare, demarking the modern combat arena in horrific carnage. Unseasoned and poorly trained British soldiers vastly overestimated the tenacity of German forces. Despite a solid week of bombardment where over a million artillery shells rained down upon German fortifications, they stood ready for the British advance. More British soldiers died on the first day of the Battle of the Somme than any other day in the history of British warfare. As the battle slogged on, troops effectively fought within an open graveyard, as there was no time to bury the multitude of the dead. As attrition wound down the 141-day conflict, almost 420,000 British soldiers lay dead, along with 200,000 French, and nearly half-a-million Germans, and all for a questionable purpose. Produced and Written by Adam Sternberg.

Running Time: (0:26:48)

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Siegfried Sassoon: A War Poet's Journey


He was a soldier's soldier, decorated for bravery by the British government and respected by the men in his battalion. But war had taken its toll on Siegfried Sassoon, and he felt a deep resentment against his country's military campaign. Sassoon returned from the trenches of hell in World War I to fight another battle in the halls of government back home. His resentment took the form of poetry: searing indictments that ran counter to popular opinion. This is the story of how one man's poetry and his protest against World War I shined a light of truth on the subject of war forever framed that conflict in the memory of his country. Produced and Written by David O'Dell.

Running Time: (0:30:09)

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Robert Graves and the White Goddess


Writer Robert Graves took many unpredictable turns on his fascinating journey through life. Though Graves would describe himself first and foremost as a poet, he was a man of enormous literary talent who wrote more than 150 books. He was eccentric, brilliant, and visionary and his vivid imagination was fueled by a volatile mixture of emotional highs and catastrophic lows. His most memorable works emerged when the world around him was falling apart. At the peak of his writing career, Graves attempted to unravel the mystery of his creative process. That effort took him on a journey across time and culture through which he envisioned a mythical female muse that he called the White Goddess. Produced and Written by David O'Dell and Betsy Bayha.

Running Time: (0:30:18)

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I Am France: The Myth of Charles de Gaulle


In France's darkest hours of World War II, a lone French voice emanated from BBC radio in an attempt to rally free French forces to resist the power of invading Germany. Recognizing his value as an ally, Winston Churchill acknowledged de Gaulle as the French leader despite the fact that a national government still existed in France. As he was forced to the sidelines of Allied Command decisions, de Gaulle led military campaigns defending France's colonies, building his reputation. Despite this, he was excluded from Normandy operations. He nonetheless accompanied US forces with great theatricality as they arrived in Paris, and was soon elected head of the French government. Years after his retirement, the French people turned to de Gaulle for guidance during the Algerian crisis, but his mythic position as the face of France would end during the social upheaval of the 1960s. Produced and Written by Karena O'Riordan.

Running Time: (0:30:08)

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The above descriptors were acquired from Starwars.com

Disclaimer: All resources (including books and websites) provided on indyintheclassroom.com are intended to be used by educators. Indyintheclassroom.com is not responsible for the content on linked websites.
Educators are strongly advised to review any resources prior to allowing student use.

Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.

Indy Connections: Trenches of Hell

Below are current event articles that relate to events, topics, and people found in Trenches of Hell.


How Did the Cruellest Month Come to Be the Perfect 30 Days to Celebrate Poetry?

Smithsonian.com
4/4/2014

The “National Month” commemoration is a fairly harmless political boondoggle, involving a governmental proclamation and some degree of public programming by those concerned. Some of the “Months” are well-meaning attempts to rectify past wrongs, in particular February’s designation as “Black History Month” and November as “National Native American Heritage Month.” Other commemorative months are lesser known and the subjects are, shall we say, not especially compelling: January is “National Mentoring Month.” And we honor pets in May and honey in September.


First World War shell explodes at former Ypres battlefield killing two people

express.co.uk
3/19/2014

The shell exploded at a construction area in Ypres killing two workers and injuring two others. One person died instantly while the other died on the way to hospital and authorities said an investigation was taking place into the explosion. Ypres police chief Georges Aeck said: "It's a shell that exploded with four workers there, a conventional device from World War One. "One died instantly, another on the way to the hospital."


Help Transcribe Diaries From World War I

Smithsonian.com
3/18/2014

The National Archives currently has in its collection 1.5 million pages of handwritten diaries kept by soldiers of World War I. They're some of the most requested documents in the National Archives reading room, but until now have been accessible only to anyone who's made the trip to D.C. But now the archivisits are working to put them online, and you can help them. The project is called Operation War Diary, and it comes from a partnership between the National Archives, the citizen science initiative Zooniverse and the Imperial War Museum in the UK. The diaries have all been scanned and posted online for citizen historians to look at and transcribe. According to the project: "The war diaries contain a wealth of information of far greater interest than the army could ever have predicted. They provide unrivalled insight into daily events on the front line, and are full of fascinating detail about the decisions that were made and the activities that resulted from them."


WW1 German soldier recalls moment he bayoneted foe to death

telegraph.co.uk
3/7/2014

Stefan Westmann was a German medical student when called up for national service in April 1914. He served as a Corporal with the 29th later as a Medical Officer. When the Nazis came to power, he emigrated to Britain and ran a successful gynaecological practice on Harley Street. The German Army of the Kaiser consisted of 800,000 conscripts. There were hardly any professional soldiers. Amongst these 800,000 men they had ten thousand who were called One Year’s Volunteers. That means mostly students and men with higher certification of education


The Science of Solitary Confinement

Smithsonian.com
2/19/2014

Picture MetLife Stadium, the New Jersey venue that hosted the Super Bowl earlier this month. It seats 82,556 people in total, making it the largest stadium in the NFL. Imagine the crowd it takes to fill that enormous stadium. That, give or take a thousand, is the number of men and women held in solitary confinement in prisons across the U.S. Although the practice has been largely discontinued in most countries, it's become increasingly routine over the past few decades within the American prison system. Once employed largely as a short-term punishment, it's now regularly used as way of disciplining prisoners indefinitely, isolating them during ongoing investigations, coercing them into cooperating with interrogations and even separating them from perceived threats within the prison population at their request.


World War One: 10 interpretations of who started WW1

bbc.com
2/11/2014

No one nation deserves all responsibility for the outbreak of war, but Germany seems to me to deserve most. It alone had power to halt the descent to disaster at any time in July 1914 by withdrawing its "blank cheque" which offered support to Austria for its invasion of Serbia. I'm afraid I am unconvinced by the argument that Serbia was a rogue state which deserved its nemesis at Austria's hands. And I do not believe Russia wanted a European war in 1914 - its leaders knew that it would have been in a far stronger position to fight two years later, having completed its rearmament programme.


World War One: The circus animals that helped Britain

bbc.com
11/10/2013

On the cobbled streets of industrial Sheffield an Indian elephant dutifully lumbered along. Her task was important - she had to cart munitions, machines and scrap metal around the city, a job previously done by three horses taken off to war. Lizzie - as she was known - was used to performing tricks as part of a travelling menagerie. But with the outbreak of World War One she was conscripted to help with heavy labour, fitted with a harness and sent to work at a scrap metal merchants.


German Subs: Sunken WWI U-Boats a Bonanza for Historians

abcnew.com
6/21/2013

British archaeologists recently discovered more than 40 German U-boats sunk during World War I off the coast of England. Now they are in a race against time to learn the secrets hidden in their watery graves. On the old game show "What's My Line?" Briton Mark Dunkley might have been described with the following words: "He does what many adventurers around the world can only dream of doing." Dunkley is an underwater archeologist who dives for lost treasures. His most recent discoveries were anything if not eerie.


8 Famous People Who Missed the Lusitania

Smithsonian.com
5/2/2013

When the First World War began, in the summer of 1914, the Lusitania was among the most glamorous and celebrated ships in the world—at one time both the largest and fastest afloat. But the British passenger liner would earn a far more tragic place in history on May 7, 1915, when it was torpedoed by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland, with the loss of nearly 1,200 lives.


Rare World War I Images Found Inside Antique Camera By Photographer Anton Orlov

huffingtonpost.com
1/11/2013

A blogger passionate about historic photography techniques serendipitously found some old photos inside his newly-purchased camera. As in, World War I old. Last week, Anton Orlov of the Photo Palace blog was cleaning the Jumelle Belllieni stereoscopic camera that he'd bought at an antique store a few days prior, and found the images completely by accident. According to his blog, he opened the film chamber and saw the negatives on a stack of glass plates.


Disclaimer: All resources (including books and websites) provided on indyintheclassroom.com are intended to be used by educators. Indyintheclassroom.com is not responsible for the content on linked websites.
Educators are strongly advised to review any resources prior to allowing student use.

Copyright: All images on Indyintheclassroom.com are used with permission or are in the public domain. Exceptions are noted. For additional information see our Copyright section.


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